Alsewari, Abdulrahman A. and Kamal Z, Zamli and Lin, Mee Xuan (2020) Firefly combinatorial testing strategy. Krishnan, Ankita (2020) Understanding Autism Spectrum Disorder Through a Cultural Lens: Perspectives, Stigma, and Cultural Values among Asians. Satisfies: QS Course Description: Models of computation and lower-bound techniques; storing and manipulating orthogonal objects; orthogonal and simplex range searching, convex hulls, planar point location, proximity problems, arrangements, linear programming and parametric search technique, probabilistic and incremental algorithms.
Abstract: Virtually all software is out of intellectual control in that no one knows its full behavior. Software Behavior Computation (SBC) is a new technology for understanding everything software does. SBC applies the mathematics of denotational semantics implemented by function composition in Functional Trace Tables (FTTs) to compute the behavior of programs, expressed as disjoint cases of conditional concurrent assignments. In some circumstances, combinatorial explosions in the number of cases can occur when calculating the behavior of sequences of multiple branching structures. This paper describes computational methods that avoid combinatorial explosions. The predicates that control branching structures such as ifthenelses can be organized into three categories: 1) Independent, resulting in no behavior case explosion, 2) Coordinated, resulting in two behavior cases, or 3) Goal-oriented, with potential exponential growth in the number of cases. Traditional FTT-based behavior computation can be augmented by two additional computational methods, namely, Single-Value Function Abstractions (SVFAs) and, introduced in this paper, Relational Trace Tables (RTTs). These methods can be applied to the three predicate categories to avoid combinatorial growth in behavior cases while maintaining mathematical correctness.
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Abstract: Firewall, as a mechanism of compulsory access control between the network or system, is an important means to ensure the network security. Firewall can be a very simple filter, but also it can be a carefully targeted gateway. But the principle is the same, which is monitoring and filtering all the information exchanged in internal and external networks.
This can be overcome by approaches that rely on a single SYN packet to elicit a vector of features from the remote server; however, these methods face difficult classification problems due to the high volatility of the features and severely limited amounts of information contained therein. Since these techniques have not been studied before, we first pioneer stochastic theory of single-packet OS fingerprinting, build a database of 116 OSes, design a classifier based on our models, evaluate its accuracy in simulations, and then perform OS classification of 37/8M hosts from an Internet-wide scan.
Jude Children’s Research Hospital); Greg Armstrong (St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital); Melissa Hudson (St.
Abstract: In a medium sized network, an Intrusion Detection System (IDS) could produce thousands of alerts a day many of which may be false positives. In the vast number of triggered intrusion alerts, identifying those to prioritise is highly challenging. Alert correlation and prioritisation are both viable analytical methods which are commonly used to understand and prioritise alerts. However, to the author's knowledge, very few dynamic prioritisation metrics exist. In this paper, a new prioritisation metric - OutMet, which is based on measuring the degree to which an alert belongs to anomalous behaviour is proposed. OutMet combines alert correlation and prioritisation analysis. We illustrate the effectiveness of OutMet by testing its ability to prioritise alerts generated from a 2021 red-team cyber-range experiment that was carried out as part of the BT Saturn programme. In one of the scenarios, OutMet significantly reduced the false-positives by 99/3%.
LS-LEACH (Lightweight Secure LEACH) (2021): LS-LEACH adds the security feature into LEACH protocol. This protocol uses energy-efficient and lightweight authentication scheme. In LS-LEACH, every node uses one secret key for sharing with BS and second shared with other nodes of network. Private key is used for sharing data between CH and BS, and group key is for joining CHs. The main feature of LS-LEACH is that CH and nodes both authenticate each other to prevent network from attackers.
The article is organized in four large independent sections and a short conclusion. Probabilistic Method in Combinatorics (MIT) Shape grammars are systems of visual rules by which one shape may be transformed into another. ISSN 0095-8956 Adler, I, Le, NK, Muller, H et al. (3 more authors) (2020) On rank-width of even-hole-free graphs. Handbook Of Photovoltaic Science And Engineering; Spss Statistics; Scotts Speedy Green 1000 Spreader Price; Match Organs To Body Systems; 1960 Vw Bus Wiring Diagram; Gena Sho. Applications provide the background, in the classical spirit of mutual interplay between abstract theory and problem-solving practice.
SURGE: Surface Regularized Geometry Estimation from a Single Image Peng Wang*, UCLA; Xiaohui Shen, Adobe Research; Bryan Russell; Scott Cohen, Adobe Research; Brian Price; Alan Yuille, Interpretable Distribution Features with Maximum Testing Power Wittawat Jitkrittum*, Gatsby Unit, UCL; Zoltan Szabo; Kacper Chwialkowski, Gatsby Unit, UCL; Arthur Gretton, Sorting out typicality with the. References  A. Agrawal, R. Raskar, and R. Chellappa. Get your assignment help services from professionals. S one sociology and one anthropology washington university st. Tcu steven vago carroll chapter crju. We ship one major version, followed by two patch releases, so we tend to increment a major version every 3 months.
In: 7th international symposium on communication systems, networks digital signal processing, pp 621–625 10
The pigs remained on anesthesia for 1 to 2 h following. Suzuki, Takakuni (2020) Quantifying the Relations among Neurophysiological Responses, Dimensional Psychopathology, and Personality Traits. Briefly, the rectangular marquee tool was used to draw a bounding box (depending on the size of the printed pattern and/or magnification) and the image histogram tool was used to measure average pixel intensity. Decomposing Images into Layers via RGB-space Geometry. Dr. Kantesh Balani (MSE) has been selected by Elsevier as a recipient of Materials Science and Engineering C: Young Researcher Award for the.
Abstract: Steganography is a art of hiding information in a host signal. It is very important to hide the secret data efficiently, as many attacks made on the data communication. The host signal can be a still image, speech or video and the message signal that is hidden in the host signal can be a text, image or an audio signal. The cryptography concept is used for locking the secret message in the cover file. The cryptography makes the secret message not understood unless the decryption key is available. It is related with constructing and analyzing various methods that overcome the influence of third parties. Modern cryptography works on the disciplines like mathematics, computer science and electrical engineering. In this paper a symmetric key is developed which consists of reshuffling and secret arrangement of secret signal data bits in cover signal data bits. In this paper the authors have performed the encryption process on secret speech signal data bits-level to achieve greater strength of encryption which is hidden inside the cover image. The encryption algorithm applied with embedding method is the robust secure method for data hiding.
Abstract: The wiretap channel models secure communication in the presence of an eavesdropper who must be kept ignorant of transmitted messages. In this paper, the arbitrarily varying wiretap channel (AVWC), in which the channel may vary in an unknown and arbitrary manner from channel use to channel use, is considered. For arbitrarily varying channels (AVCs) the capacity might differ depending on whether deterministic or common randomness (CR) assisted codes are used. The AVWC has been studied for both coding strategies and the relation between the corresponding secrecy capacities has been established. However, a characterization of the CR-assisted secrecy capacity itself or even a general CR-assisted achievable secrecy rate remain open in general for weak and strong secrecy. Here, the secrecy measure of high decoding error at the eavesdropper is considered, where the eavesdropper is further assumed to know channel states and to adapt its decoding strategy accordingly. For this secrecy measure a general CR-assisted achievable secrecy rate is established. The relation between secrecy capacities for different secrecy measures is discussed: The weak and strong secrecy capacities are smaller than or equal to the one for high decoding error. It is conjectured that this relation can be strict for certain channels.
In the same way, Kumar et al. also used supervised machine leaning techniques for detection of shilling attacks. They compared the performance of six classifiers. They also analyzed that NN, SVM and random forest have performed better than the other classifiers. They collaborate these three classifiers and developed a new one which outdoes in many cases. Zhang and Zhou offered an ensemble model for detection of shilling attack profiles based on BP neural network. It gave higher precision than the previous approach. Patel et al. also proposed a classification technique for detection of shilling attack based on the attributes RDMA, DegSim and length variance. The classification method, decision tree, is used. It gives better accuracy in any of filler size and attack size. Davoudi and Chatterjee proposed the classification technique for the identification of shilling attack profiles that is based on social interaction between the attackers and authentic users.
Mobile Radio Communications and 5G Networks: Proceedings of MRCN 2021 9789811571299
Abstract: Nowadays networking is secure because we encrypt the confidential messages with the underlying assumption that adversaries in the network are computationally bounded. For traditional routing or network coding, routers know the contents of the packets they receive. Networking is not secure any more if there are eavesdroppers with infinite computational power at routers. Our concern is whether we can achieve stronger security at routers. This paper proposes secure network coding for wireless routing. Combining channel coding and network coding, this scheme can not only provide physical layer security at wireless routers but also forward data error-free at a high rate. In the paper we prove this scheme can be applied to general networks for secure wireless routing.
Abstract: In this paper we investigate a secret sharing scheme based on a shortened systematic Reed-Solomon code. In the scheme L secrets S1, S2, SL and n shares X1, X2, Xn satisfy certain n - k + L linear equations. Security of such a ramp secret sharing scheme is analyzed in detail. We prove that this scheme realizes a (k; n)-threshold scheme for the case of L = 1 and a ramp (k, L, n)-threshold scheme for the case of 2 ≤ L ≤ k - 1 under a certain assumption on S1, S2, SL.
Abstract: This paper studies the concept of jointly utilizing the data information (DI) and channel state information (CSI) in order to design symbol-level precoders for a multiple input and single output (MISO) downlink channel. In this direction, the interference among the simultaneous data streams is transformed to useful signal that can improve the signal to interference noise ratio (SINR) of the downlink transmissions. We propose a maximum ratio transmissions (MRT) based algorithm that jointly exploits DI and CSI to gain the benefits from these useful signals. In this context, a novel framework to minimize the power consumption is proposed by formalizing the duality between the constructive interference downlink channel and the multicast channels. The numerical results have shown that the proposed schemes outperform other state of the art techniques.
Abstract: Non-malleable codes provide a useful and meaningful security guarantee in situations where traditional error correction (and even error-detection) is impossible; for example, when the attacker can completely overwrite the encoded message. Informally, a code is non-malleable if the message contained in a modified codeword is either the original message, or a completely unrelated value. Although such codes do not exist if the family of "tampering functions" F is completely unrestricted, they are known to exist for many broad tampering families F. One such natural family is the family of tampering functions in the so called split-state model. Here the message m is encoded into two shares L and R, and the attacker is allowed to arbitrarily tamper with L and R individually. The split-state tampering arises in many realistic applications, such as the design of non-malleable secret sharing schemes, motivating the question of designing efficient non-malleable codes in this model. Prior to this work, non-malleable codes in the splitstate model received considerable attention in the literature, but were constructed either (1) in the random oracle model , or (2) relied on advanced cryptographic assumptions (such as non-interactive zero-knowledge proofs and leakage-resilient encryption) , or (3) could only encode 1-bit messages . As our main result, we build the first efficient, multi-bit, information-theoretically-secure non-malleable code in the split-state model.
Such type of piracy naturally imprints a visible flicker signal in the pirate video due to the interplay between the rendering and acquisition devices. The parameters of such flicker are inherently tied to the characteristics of the pirate devices such as the back-light of the LCD screen and the read-out time of the camcorder. In this article, we introduce a forensic methodology to estimate such parameters by analyzing the flicker signal present in pirate recordings. Experimental results clearly showcase that the accuracy of these estimation techniques offers efficient means to tell-tale which devices have been used for piracy thanks to the variety of factory settings used by consumer electronics manufacturers.
Abstract: Users are inveigled into visiting a malicious website in a phishing or malware-distribution scam through the use of a `lure' - a superficially valid reason for their interest. We examine real world data from some `worms' that spread over the social graph of Instant Messenger users. We find that over 14 million distinct users clicked on these lures over a two year period from Spring 2021. Furthermore, we present evidence that 95% of users who clicked on the lures became infected with malware. In one four week period spanning May-June 2021, near the worm's peak, we estimate that at least 1/67 million users were infected. We measure the extent to which small variations in lure URLs and the short pieces of text that accompany these URLs affects the likelihood of users clicking on the malicious URL. We show that the hostnames containing recognizable brand names were more effective than the terse random strings employed by URL shortening systems; and that brief Portuguese phrases were more effective in luring in Brazilians than more generic `language independent' text.
Abstract: Vehicles made within the past years have gradually become more and more complex. As a result, the embedded computer systems that monitor and control these systems have also grown in size and complexity. Unfortunately, the technology that protects them from external attackers has not improved at a similar rate. In this paper we discuss the vulnerabilities of modern in-vehicle networks, focusing on the Controller Area Network (CAN) communications protocol as a primary attack vector. We discuss the vulnerabilities of CAN, the types of attacks that can be used against it, and some of the solutions that have been proposed to overcome these attacks.
For testing two random vectors for independence, we consider testing whether the distance of one vector from a center point is >independent from the distance of the other vector from a center point by a univariate test. In this paper we provide conditions >under which it is enough to have a consistent univariate test of independence on the distances to guarantee that the power to detect >dependence between the random vectors increases to one, as the sample size increases. These conditions turn out to be minimal. If >the univariate test is distribution-free, the multivariate test will also be distribution-free. If we consider multiple center >points and aggregate the center-specific univariate tests, the power may be further improved, and the resulting multivariate test >may be distribution-free for specific aggregation methods (if the univariate test is distribution-free). We show that several >multivariate tests recently proposed in the literature can be viewed as instances of this general approach.
Abstract: Spam researchers and security personnel require a method for determining whether the URLs embedded in email messages are safe or potentially hostile. Prior research has been focused on spam collections that are quite insignificant compared to real-world spam volumes. In this paper, researchers evaluate 464 million URLs representing nearly 1 million unique domains observed in email messages in a six day period from November 2021. Four methods of customization and randomization of URLs believed to be used by spammers to attempt to increase deliverability of their URLs are explored: domain diversity, hostname wild-carding, path uniqueness, and attribute uniqueness. Implications of the findings suggest improvements for “URL blacklist” methods, methods of sampling to decrease the number of URLs that must be reviewed for safety, as well as presenting some challenges to the ICANN, Registrar, and Email Safety communities.
Abstract: Visual cryptography is one of the emerging technology which has been used for sending secret images in highly secure manner without performing the complex operations while encoding. This technology can be used in the many fields like transferring military data, financial scan documents, sensitive image data and so on. In the literature different methods are used for black and white image which produce good result but for color images the quality of the decoded secret image is not good. In this paper, the system has been proposed which increase the quality of color decoded image. In this system sender takes one secret image which is encoded into n share images using Jarvis halftoning and encoding table. For decoding, the share images are used with decoding table to get original secret image. The average filter has been applied to decrease the noise introduced between encoding operation so that decoded secret image quality has been increased. The result analysis has been made by considering various image quality analysis parameters such as MSE, PSNR, SC, NAE and so on. The results are better than previous systems which are mentioned in the literature.
It is comprised of different back-to-back layers. The contribution to the convolutional system takes crude pixel estimations of a picture. The output or final layer consists of number of neurons corresponds to number of target classes . In the proposed architecture, the output layer of the convolutional neural system will contain three neurons.
Abstract: González Vasco et al. extend the area of application of algorithms for the hidden number problem in 2004. Using this extension and relations among the bits in and binary fraction expansion of x mod p/p, we present a probabilistic algorithm for some trapdoor functions to recover a hidden message when an imperfect oracle is given of predicting most significant bits in hidden message. We show that computing the most significant bit in message encrypted by ElGmal encryption function is as hard as computing the entire plaintext, and so is RSA.
Introduction to Geometric Algorithms
Florida Assessment Guide Grade 4 Math. Locations to serve you Newport Beach 949-645-2888 and our new store in Costa Mesa 949-226-8333 See map below Big Belly Deli Newport Beach Costa Mesa 6310 West Coast Hwy. By applying these rules recursively, a simple shape can be elaborated into a complex pattern. In this work we detail the first algorithm that provides topological control during surface reconstruction from an input set of planar cross-sections. Handbook of Differential Equations: Ordinary Differential Equations.
Abstract: In this paper, we propose superposition coding based on the lattice Gaussian distribution to achieve strong secrecy over the Gaussian broadcast channel with one confidential message, with a constant gap to the secrecy capacity (only for the confidential message). The proposed superposition lattice code consists of a lattice Gaussian code for the Gaussian noise and a wiretap lattice code with strong secrecy. The flatness factor is used to analyze the error probability, information leakage and achievable rates. By removing the secrecy coding, we can modify our scheme to achieve the capacity of the Gaussian broadcast channel with one common and one private message without the secrecy constraint.
Abstract: This paper focuses on cascading line failures in the transmission system of the power grid. Recent large-scale power outages demonstrated the limitations of percolation- and epidemic-based tools in modeling cascades. Hence, we study cascades by using computational tools and a linearized power flow model. We first obtain results regarding the Moore-Penrose pseudo-inverse of the power grid admittance matrix. Based on these results, we study the impact of a single line failure on the flows on other lines. We also illustrate via simulation the impact of the distance and resistance distance on the flow increase following a failure, and discuss the difference from the epidemic models. We use the pseudo-inverse of admittance matrix to develop an efficient algorithm to identify the cascading failure evolution, which can be a building block for cascade mitigation. Finally, we show that finding the set of lines whose removal results in the minimum yield (the fraction of demand satisfied after the cascade) is NP-Hard and introduce a simple heuristic for finding such a set. Overall, the results demonstrate that using the resistance distance and the pseudo-inverse of admittance matrix provides important insights and can support the development of efficient algorithms.
Computational and combinatorial geometry, and discuss several open problems and areas for further research. For more details on combinatorial (https://ctbelize.com/activation-key/?patch=1857) topology and topological graph theory, see Gross and Tucker, Mohar and Thomassen, and Hatcher. Abdel-Salam, Ahmed Nabil (2020) Corporate. Emphasis is placed on teaching methods in combinatorial geometry. Vw Golf 4 Tdi User Manual.
Blockchain supports decentralized architecture; therefore, there exists no central control authority in case of fraudulent activity. Dark web is the most common fraudulent network which uses blockchain technology; thus, this is subjected to the legal conducts.
Abstract: We consider a wiretap multiple-input multiple-output multiple-eavesdropper (MIMOME) channel, where agent Alice aims at transmitting a secret message to agent Bob, while leaking no information on it to an eavesdropper agent Eve. We assume that Alice has more antennas than both Bob and Eve, and that she has only statistical knowledge of the channel towards Eve. We focus on the low-noise regime, and assess the secrecy rates that are achievable when the secret message determines the distribution of a multivariate Gaussian mixture model (GMM) from which a realization is generated and transmitted over the channel. In particular, we show that if Eve has fewer antennas than Bob, secret transmission is always possible at low-noise. Moreover, we show that in the low-noise limit the secrecy capacity of our scheme coincides with its unconstrained capacity, by providing a class of covariance matrices that allow to attain such limit without the need of wiretap coding.
Abstract: This paper investigates the problem of source-channel coding for secure transmission with arbitrarily correlated side informations at both receivers. This scenario consists of an encoder (referred to as Alice) that wishes to compress a source and send it through a noisy channel to a legitimate receiver (referred to as Bob). In this context, Alice must simultaneously satisfy the desired requirements on the distortion level at Bob and the equivocation rate at the eavesdropper (referred to as Eve). This setting can be seen as a generalization of the problems of secure source coding with (uncoded) side information at the decoders and the wiretap channel. A general outer bound on the rate-distortion-equivocation region, as well as an inner bound based on a pure digital scheme, is derived for arbitrary channels and side informations. In some special cases of interest, it is proved that this digital scheme is optimal and that separation holds. However, it is also shown through a simple counterexample with a binary source that a pure analog scheme can outperform the digital one while being optimal. According to these observations and assuming matched bandwidth, a novel hybrid digital/analog scheme that aims to gather the advantages of both digital and analog ones is then presented. In the quadratic Gaussian setup when side information is only present at the eavesdropper, this strategy is proved to be optimal. Furthermore, it outperforms both digital and analog schemes and cannot be achieved via time-sharing.
Cover image of Combinatorial Geometry
Abstract: Cloud computing is a revolution in information technology. The cloud consumer outsources their sensitive data and personal information to cloud provider's servers which is not within the same trusted domain of data-owner so most challenging issues arises in cloud are data security users privacy and access control. In this paper we also have proposed a method to achieve fine grained security with combined approach of PGP and Kerberos in cloud computing. The proposed method provides authentication, confidentiality, integrity, and privacy features to Cloud Service Providers and Cloud Users.
Abstract: In this paper, the optimal Context quantization for the source is present. By considering correlations among values of source symbols, these conditional probability distributions are sorted by values of conditions firstly. Then the dynamic programming is used to implement the Context quantization. The description length of the Context model is used as the judgment parameter. Based on the criterion that the neighbourhood conditional probability distributions could be merged, our algorithm finds the optimal structure with minimum description length and the optimal Context quantization results could be achieved. The experiment results indicate that the proposed algorithm could achieve the similar result with other adaptive Context quantization algorithms with reasonable computational complexity.
Abstract: Keystroke dynamics is a subfield of computer security in which the cadence of the typist's keystrokes are used to determine authenticity. The static variety of keystroke dynamics uses typing patterns observed during the typing of a password or passphrase. This paper presents a technique for static authentication on mobile tablet devices using neural networks for analysis of keystroke metrics. Metrics used in the analysis of typing are monographs, digraphs, and trigraphs. Monographs as we define them consist of the time between the press and release of a single key, coupled with the discretized x-y location of the keystroke on the tablet. A digraph is the duration between the presses of two consecutively pressed keys, and a trigraph is the duration between the press of a key and the press of a key two keys later. Our technique combines the analysis of monographs, digraphs, and trigraphs to produce a confidence measure. Our best equal error rate for distinguishing users from impostors is 9/3% for text typing, and 9/0% for a custom experiment setup that is discussed in detail in the paper.
The heterogenic nature and integration in IoT pose various challenges for the technology. Another issues pose security and reliability of generated data as data needs to travel within the various networks for the efficient communication. Likewise in the centralized architecture, there exist issues related to fault tolerance, backup, recovery. Unauthorized entities can alter the information as per there convince or requirement; thus, the information shared in the network becomes unreliable. This brings us a need to verify the information which has been travelling in the network for the authenticity of the information. One way to achieve the authenticity in IoT device by using the distributed services in which all the participants are authenticated users and also ensure mechanism to encrypt the data so that the data remains unalterable. For achieving authenticity we need to verifies all the users so that every user will able to verifies complete data from the initiation to the termination process that data should neither be altered nor tampered. To make the system reliable and fault tolerant the distributed services maintain the successful delivery of data to the destination. Data immutability becomes a key challenge in the sectors in which traceability of asset is required. Likewise in the food industry if we need to determine the raw material used in the formation of the food products along with the destination where the food product has to be delivered finally.
Abstract: We extend the Bellare-Tessaro coding scheme for a discrete, degraded, symmetric wiretap channel to a Gaussian wiretap channel. Denoting by SNR the signal-to-noise ratio of the eavesdropper's channel, the proposed scheme converts a transmission code of rate R for the channel of the legitimate receiver into a code of rate R-0/5 log(1+SNR) for the Gaussian wiretap channel. The conversion has a polynomial complexity in the codeword length and the proposed scheme achieves strong security. In particular, when the underlying transmission code is capacity achieving, this scheme achieves the secrecy capacity of the Gaussian wiretap channel.
Abstract: In this paper, we study the performance of routing in the Level-I/II (n1, n2) wiretap networks, consisting of a source node, a destination node, and an intermediate node. The intermediate node connects the source and the destination nodes via a set of noiseless parallel channels, with sizes n1 and n2, respectively. The information in the network may be eavesdropped by a wiretapper, who can access at most one set of channels, called a wiretap set. All the possible wiretap sets which may be accessed by the wiretapper form a wiretap pattern. A random key K is used to protect the message M. We define two decoding levels: in Level-I, only M is decoded and in Level-II, both M and K are decoded. The objective is to minimize H(K)/H(M) under perfect secrecy constraint. Our concern is whether routing is optimal in this simple network. By harnessing the power of Shannon-type inequalities, we enumerate all the wiretap patterns in the Level-I/II (3, 3) networks, and find out that gaps exist between the bounds by routing and the bounds by Shannon-type inequalities for a small fraction of all the wiretap patterns.
Medical Laboratory Technology By Kanai L Mukherjee; God Deepak Chopra; F2 Science Exam Paper Answer; Term 2 Task 2 Business Studies Memo; Database Systems Elmasri 6th Solution. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them. Panchatantra Tales in English - Animated Stories for Kids - Part 1. Moral. Today control theory is a rich source of basic abstract problems arising from applications, and provides an important frame of reference for investigating purely mathematical issues. For example, the projective plane over the eld F qhas q2 +q+1 points.
Difference Equations and Inequalities: Theory, Methods, and Applications
Firstly, a fitness value is assigned to every chromosome in the answer space. The population in NGSA-II is sorted into an order of sub-populace centered on the Pareto dominance ordering. NGSA-II determines fitness metric employing all optimized objectives. NGSA-II is a multiobjective optimization and genetic technique that gives additional answers, whereas a single-purpose optimization technique gives single optimum answer that optimizes single-purpose function. Solutions can be poor than other solutions as per single objective; however, solutions should be superior than other answer as per at least one other purpose. The resemblance amid individuals of every sub-cluster is evaluated on the Pareto front that provides inverse front of answers. Several Pareto optimal answers constitute a Pareto optimal front in a multiobjective optimization problem. Whereas in each generation, the best chromosome remains, there is no loss of good chromosome. As per one objective function, every Pareto optimal solution is considered as good; however, there is only single answer that optimizes the entire fitness task. As per at least one optimization criteria, every Pareto optimal solution is considered as good.
The dysplasia cells look like cancer cells, but they are not malignant. These cells are known as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Based on the severity, the CIN is broadly classified into three grades (CIN1/CIN2/CIN3). Over period of time, CIN1 will relapse by body immune system. Thus, the major goal is to diagnose CIN2 and CIN3. The treatment will be proven effective if right type of cervix is identified at early stage. According to cervical cancer statistic , the early detection of cervical cancer can increase the five-year survival rate to 91%. The commonly used cervical cancer screening methods are Pap test, HPV testing, colposcopy, and digital cervicography. These are effective methods of screening but suffers from low sensitivity in detecting CIN2/3+. Moreover, these tests require the expert personnel and laboratory setup for conducting the test.
Off-campus Purdue users may download theses and dissertations by logging into the Libraries' proxy server with your Purdue Career Account. This is a very natural and well-studied problem with applications in many different areas. Current Topics in Summability Theory. Non-Purdue users, may purchase copies of theses and dissertations from ProQuest or talk to your librarian about borrowing a copy through Interlibrary. IndiaBIX provides you lots of fully solved Aptitude (Probability) questions and answers with Explanation.
Abstract: Wiretap channels form the most basic building block of physical-layer and information-theoretic security. Considerable research work has gone into the information-theoretic, cryptographic and coding aspects of wiretap channels in the last few years. The main goal of this tutorial article is to provide a self-contained presentation of two recent results - one is a new and simplified proof for secrecy capacity using channel resolvability, and the other is the connection between semantic security and information-theoretic strong secrecy.
Dissertations & Theses from 2020. Tues Feb 18, 2020 (CORE Series) CSE2 G04, 4-5pm Bernd Sturmfels, MPI Leipzig / UC Berkeley. Due to its e#ciency, the algorithm can be used in interactive and on. Ramayanam Books In Tamil. Ollenburger pages 17. Transcript law and dispute resolution chapter law and society 9th edition steven vago steven vago professor emeritus.
Difference Equations and Inequalities
Abstract: Anonymous messaging platforms, such as Secret, Yik Yak and Whisper, have emerged as important social media for sharing one's thoughts without the fear of being judged by friends, family, or the public. Further, such anonymous platforms are crucial in nations with authoritarian governments; the right to free expression and sometimes the personal safety of the author of the message depend on anonymity. Whether for fear of judgment or personal endangerment, it is crucial to keep anonymous the identity of the user who initially posted a sensitive message. In this paper, we consider an adversary who observes a snapshot of the spread of a message at a certain time. Recent advances in rumor source detection shows that the existing messaging protocols are vulnerable against such an adversary. We introduce a novel messaging protocol, which we call adaptive diffusion, and show that it spreads the messages fast and achieves a perfect obfuscation of the source when the underlying contact network is an infinite regular tree: all users with the message are nearly equally likely to have been the origin of the message. Experiments on a sampled Facebook network show that it effectively hides the location of the source even when the graph is finite, irregular and has cycles.
Profile for Sathi Bhattarai
Abstract: Existing code similarity comparison methods, whether source or binary code based, are mostly not resilient to obfuscations. In the case of software plagiarism, emerging obfuscation techniques have made automated detection increasingly difficult. In this paper, we propose a binary-oriented, obfuscation-resilient method based on a new concept, longest common subsequence of semantically equivalent basic blocks, which combines rigorous program semantics with longest common subsequence based fuzzy matching. We model the semantics of a basic block by a set of symbolic formulas representing the input-output relations of the block. This way, the semantics equivalence (and similarity) of two blocks can be checked by a theorem prover. We then model the semantics similarity of two paths using the longest common subsequence with basic blocks as elements. This novel combination has resulted in strong resiliency to code obfuscation. We have developed a prototype and our experimental results show that our method is effective and practical when applied to real-world software.
Advances in Multimedia Modeling, 13 conf., MMM 2020, Part
Abstract: Quantum cryptography aims at solving the everlasting problem of unconditional security in private communication. Every time we send personal information over a telecom channel a sophisticate algorithm protect our privacy making our data unintelligible to unauthorized receivers. These protocols resulted from the long history of cryptography. The security of modern cryptographic systems is guaranteed by complexity: the computational power that would be needed for gaining info on the code key largely exceed available one. Security of actual crypto systems is not “by principle” but “practical”. On the contrary, quantum technology promises to make possible to realize provably secure protocols. Quantum cryptology exploits paradigmatic aspects of quantum mechanics, like superposition principle and uncertainty relations. In this contribution, after a brief historical introduction, we aim at giving a survey on the physical principles underlying the quantum approach to cryptography. Then, we analyze a possible continuous variable protocol.
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Figure 1 shows the block diagram of the guidance methods. The missile seeker section involves the input or command to move a certain path reaching toward target. These may have some sort of sensors to seek the target or some kind of signal processing/image processing techniques. It is basically a component which generates the data to be fed as input to missile computer. Guided missile is the term used for missile post World War II era. This was because the weapons were replaced by the technology of guided missile. Due to the advancement in the technology of guided missile, the accuracy in the weapons used in the military was increased significantly, though along with it the threat complexity was also increased.
Abstract: This paper presents a hierarchical formal verification method for cryptographic processors based on a combination of a word-level computer algebra procedure and a bit-level decision procedure using PPRM (Positive Polarity Reed-Muller) expansion. In the proposed method, the entire datapath structure of a cryptographic processor is described in the form of a hierarchical graph. The correctness of the entire circuit function is verified on this graph representation, by the algebraic method, and the function of each component is verified by the PPRM method, respectively. We have applied the proposed verification method to a complicated AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) circuit with a masking countermeasure against side-channel attack. The results show that the proposed method can verify such practical circuit automatically within 4 minutes while the conventional methods fail.
Abstract: Recent events demonstrated the vulnerability of power grids to cyber attacks and to physical attacks. Therefore, we focus on joint cyber and physical attacks and develop methods to retrieve the grid state information following such an attack. We consider a model in which an adversary attacks a zone by physically disconnecting some of its power lines and blocking the information flow from the zone to the grid's control center. We use tools from linear algebra and graph theory and leverage the properties of the power flow DC approximation to develop methods for information recovery. Using information observed outside the attacked zone, these methods recover information about the disconnected lines and the phase angles at the buses. We identify sufficient conditions on the zone structure and constraints on the attack characteristics such that these methods can recover the information. We also show that it is NP-hard to find an approximate solution to the problem of partitioning the power grid into the minimum number of attack-resilient zones. However, since power grids can often be represented by planar graphs, we develop a constant approximation partitioning algorithm for these graphs. Finally, we numerically study the relationships between the grid's resilience and its structural properties, and demonstrate the partitioning algorithm on real power grids. The results can provide insights into the design of a secure control network for the smart grid.
WiML Workshop 2021 Comments Feed
Item-based approach also suffers from shilling attacks as proved by Mobasher et al. . They also analyzed that segment attacks are effective on item-based CF. Burke et al. discussed the segment attacks. Segment attack focused on subset of users with specific interest. They also analyzed that segment attacks are low-cost attacks. Chirita et al. discussed many metrics for examining rating patterns which are used to identify the malicious users. Rating deviation mean agreement is given by these authors for detecting the behavior of attackers. Supervised, unsupervised and semi-supervised techniques aid in shilling attack detection. To identify shilling profiles, many classifications and clustering algorithm have been used. Bruke et al. explained various detection attributes and used KNN classifier to classify the profiles. The result of this method shows that the classifier with model specific attributes performed better.
Muhammad Adib, Shaharun and A. R, Yusoff (2020) Effects of Irregular Tool Geometry and Machining Process Parameters on the Wavelength Performance of Process Damping in Machining Titanium Alloy at Low Cutting Speed. Geometric Analysis of the Bergman Kernel and Metric. Combinatorial Optimization The Welfare of Horses N. Waran 978-1-4020-0766-8 978-0-306-48215-1 Encyclopedia of Entomology John L. Capinera 978-0-7923-8670-4 978-0-306-48380-6 The Behavior of Structures Composed of Composite Materials Jack R. Vinson, Robert L. Sierakowski 2nd ed. 2020 978-1-4020-0904-4 978-0-306-48414-8 Biomedical EPR - Part B: Methodology, Instrumentation, and Dynamics Sandra S. However, since its emergence, there has been a need to rethink and extend fields such as calculus of variations, differential geometry and nonsmooth analysis, which are closely tied to research on applications. Wiley in Discrete Mathematics and Optimization (Series) John Hooker Author (2020) The Probabilistic Method Wiley in Discrete Mathematics and Optimization (Series) Noga Alon Author Joel H. Spencer Author (2020) An Introduction to Optimization Wiley in Discrete Mathematics and Optimization (Series) Edwin K. P. Chong Author Stanislaw H.
Importance of central individuals is higher than others in a network. In a cluster or a network, the central individual is nearer to everyone. Communication can be carried out directly with others by the central individual and knowledge can be spread by the central node easily in the network. An attempt is made to use two functions in the suggested multiobjective community discovery, where the first function is centered on the vertex significance while the subsequent function is based on the proportion of external links.
The sensitivity of crops and the climatic condition proves to be a main reason behind which leads to diseases in plants which further affects the crop yield . Out of the total diseases affected, plants make upto 10–30% of overall yield loss.
By evaluating the 1 by 1 convolution, the inception hinders the correlation of cross-channels followed by correlation and cross-spatial via 5 by 5 and 3 by 3 filters. By performing computational in parallel manner and then clubbing the abstracted feature maps of each and every convolution filters, this technique offers the privilege of abstraction at multiple levels from an individual input. ResNet15 Residual neural network is abbreviated as ResNet developed by Kaiming . He had 3/57% error in classification which gives the much better results as compared to all other state of networks (convolutional neural network). Beyond a particular limit, increment in number of layers in a network can improve the training and validation loss to a great extent. The problem of disappearing gradient in network can affect the learning and make it slow and inappropriate. This problem can be solved by creating a shortcut of the input to the result of a convo (convolutional) layer in order to hinder the wrapping representation of the images. The block popularly known as residual block can lead to the addition to the depth of the network, whereas there is no change in the number of parameters. There are two blocks of residual block one as an identity function and the other as bundle of two convo (convolution) layers. Xception Xception can be termed as an enhanced version of inception model in which replacement of modules is done with respect to the depth .
Abstract: Malicious software (or malware) is defined as software that fulfills the harmful intent of an attacker and it is one of the most pressing and major security threats facing the Internet today. Antivirus companies typically have to deal with thousands of new malware every day. If antivirus software has large database then there is more chance of false positive and false negative, so to store the huge database in the virus definition, is very complex task. In this research paper the new concept is that, in spite of storing complete signatures of the virus, we can store the various tokens and their frequency in the program. In this process we will use only tokens of executable statements, so there is no problem if dead code in malware is also present. In the tokens we use two definitions one is operator and another is operand. So we can form new type of signature of a malware that take less size in the database and also give less negative false and positive false.
The Leased Proof of Stake (LPoS) This is the enhanced version of the proof of stack which is used to overcome the limitation of proof of stack so that more participants should involve for the process of block addition. These algorithms allow participants to lease coins to the other participant so they become able to participate in the process of block selection and reduce the chance of controlling network by particular group or individual. Sharing of reward is done proportional to the coin held with the miners.
Abstract: Rough set theory has been proven to be a successful computational intelligence tool. Rough entropy is a basic concept in rough set theory and it is usually used to measure the roughness of information set. Existing algorithms can only deal with small data set. Therefore, this paper proposes a method for parallel computation of entropy using MapReduce, which is hot in big data mining. Moreover, corresponding algorithm is also put forward to handle big data set. Experimental results show that the proposed parallel method is effective.
Measurement is a hard problem in the Science of Security. When applied to Big Data, the problems of measurement in security systems are compounded.
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Abstract: To counter data breaches, we introduce a new data leak prevention (DLP) approach. Unlike regular expression methods, our approach extracts a small number of critical semantic features and requires a small training set. Existing tools concentrate mostly on data format where most defense and industry applications would be better served by monitoring the semantics of information in the enterprise. We demonstrate our approach by comparing its performance with other state-of-the-art methods, such as latent dirichlet allocation (LDA) and support vector machine (SVM). The experiment results suggest that the proposed approach have superior accuracy in terms of detection rate and false-positive (FP) rate.
Abstract: Sensors of diverse capabilities and modalities, carried by us or deeply embedded in the physical world, have invaded our personal, social, work, and urban spaces. Our relationship with these sensors is a complicated one. On the one hand, these sensors collect rich data that are shared and disseminated, often initiated by us, with a broad array of service providers, interest groups, friends, and family. Embedded in this data is information that can be used to algorithmically construct a virtual biography of our activities, revealing intimate behaviors and lifestyle patterns. On the other hand, we and the services we use, increasingly depend directly and indirectly on information originating from these sensors for making a variety of decisions, both routine and critical, in our lives. The quality of these decisions and our confidence in them depend directly on the quality of the sensory information and our trust in the sources. Sophisticated adversaries, benefiting from the same technology advances as the sensing systems, can manipulate sensory sources and analyze data in subtle ways to extract sensitive knowledge, cause erroneous inferences, and subvert decisions. The consequences of these compromises will only amplify as our society increasingly complex human-cyber-physical systems with increased reliance on sensory information and real-time decision cycles. Drawing upon examples of this two-faceted relationship with sensors in applications such as mobile health and sustainable buildings, this talk will discuss the challenges inherent in designing a sensor information flow and processing architecture that is sensitive to the concerns of both producers and consumer. For the pervasive sensing infrastructure to be trusted by both, it must be robust to active adversaries who are deceptively extracting private information, manipulating beliefs and subverting decisions.
Is battery life of CH. Is the number of nodes registered with the CH. is distance between neighbours CHs. Are the weights assigned battery life, cluster density and distance.
Here n is the number of points to be labeled and m is the combinatorial complexity of the map features that must be avoided. Combinatorial Geometry in Characteristic 1 Alexandre V. Borovik Israel M. Gelfand Neil White Introduction Many geometries over elds have formal analogues which can be thought of as geometries over the eld of 1 element1. Computer Science & Engineering (with specialization in CSF) Applicable for Batch: 2020-23 Amended by the BoS and approved by the Academic Council at its 11th Meeting held on 29.04.2020. OpenCV Brought to you by: canming. Math 108 Assessment Test Page 1 Math 108 Skills Assessment The purpose of this test is purely diagnostic (before beginning your review, it will be helpful to assess both strengths and.
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The quality structure of every community is evaluated by the first function, and an attempt is made to suggest the subsequent task which determines the superiority of every individual vertex in a cluster. The second function (F 4 ) employs the average proportion of external links of every vertex. In order to obtain a community that should comprise of huge connections in the interior amid individual vertices within the cluster than external connections to other clusters, the neighbors of every vertex must be generally within the alike cluster.
Abstract: The introduction of wireless interfaces into cars raises new security-related risks to the vehicle and passengers. Vulnerabilities of the vehicle electronics to remote attacks through internet connections have been demonstrated recently. The introduction of industrial-scale processes, methods and tools for the development and quality assurance of appropriate security-controls into vehicle electronics is an essential task for system providers and vehicle manufacturers to cope with security hazards. In this contribution a process model for security analysis tasks during automotive systems development is presented. The proposed model is explained on the vulnerabilities in a vehicle's remote unlock function recently published by Spaar.
In blockchain technologies, the chains grow with the rate of 1 Mb per block in every 10 min in bitcoin and also store the copies among the nodes in the network. To solve the issue of storage and scalability, we proposed some solutions as follows: 1. Increase Number of Transaction in Block: The bitcoin algorithm’s size of block is 1 Mb and liable to handle only three to four transactions per second. Thus, we require mechanism to increase the size of the block. In May 2021, a system we proposed called bitcoin cash which successfully increases its size to 32 MB. 2. Minimum Byte Usage for the Information Representation in the Block: Blockchain technology stores information in the block which is used for the verification and validation of the transaction in the block. If we can reduce this information storage by any means than we can achieve better throughput. For this, we need to implement two things.
SNs deployed randomly in sensing area with one or more base station (BS) depending on application requirement. WSN used variety of applications including pressure, temperature, humidity monitoring, disaster management, forest fire detection, security surveillance and so on [1–3]. As these SNs have limited energy and communication in WSN takes more energy as compared to computation so as to save overall energy of network, clustering technique is designed. LEACH protocol is the basic clustering protocol in which the network is divided into clusters.
Abstract: The technology of Internet information source discovery on specific topic is the groundwork of information acquisition in current big data era. This paper presents a multi-seeds cocitation algorithm to find new Internet information sources. The proposed algorithm is based on cocitation, but what difference with the traditional algorithms is that we use multiple websites on specific topic as input seeds. Then we induce Combined Cocitation Degree(CCD) to measure the relevancy of newly found websites, which is that the new websites have higher combined cocitation degree and are more topic related. Finally a websites collection of the biggest CCD is referred to as the new Internet information sources on the specific topic. The experiments show that the proposed method outperforms traditional algorithms in the scenarios we tested.
Even assuming communication mechanisms, we have complex usability problems. For instance, we need to understand what sensors a person might be worried about and in what contexts. Audio capture at home is different from audio capture in a lecture hall. What processing is done on the sensor data may also be important. A camera capturing video for purposes of gesture recognition may be less worrisome than for purposes of facial recognition (and, of course, the user needs assurance on the proclaimed processing). Finally, given the large number of "things", the problem of notice fatigue must be dealt with, or notifications will become no more useful than browser security warnings. In this talk, we discuss all these problems in detail, together with potential solutions.
Abstract: 3D printing content is a new form of content being distributed in digital as well as analog domains. Therefore, its security is the biggest technical challenge of the content distribution service. In this paper, we analyze the 3D print-scan process, and we organize possible distortions according to the processes with respect to 3D mesh watermarking. Based on the analysis, we propose a circular shift coding structure for the 3D model. When the rotating disks of the coding structure are aligned in parallel to the layers of the 3D printing, the structure preserves a statistical feature of each disk from the layer dividing process. Based on the circular shift coding structure, we achieve a 3D print-scan resilient watermarking scheme. In experimental tests, the proposed scheme is robust against such signal processing, and cropping attacks. Furthermore, the embedded information is not lost after 3D print-scan process.
Abstract: There is an alarming increase in the amount of malware that is generated today. However, several studies have shown that most of these new malware are just variants of existing ones. Fast detection of these variants plays an effective role in thwarting new attacks. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to detect malware variants using a sparse representation framework. Exploiting the fact that most malware variants have small differences in their structure, we model a new/unknown malware sample as a sparse linear combination of other malware in the training set. The class with the least residual error is assigned to the unknown malware. Experiments on two standard malware datasets, Malheur dataset and Malimg dataset, show that our method outperforms current state of the art approaches and achieves a classification accuracy of 98/55\% and 92/83\% respectively. Further, by using a confidence measure to reject outliers, we obtain 100\% accuracy on both datasets, at the expense of throwing away a small percentage of outliers. Finally, we evaluate our technique on two large scale malware datasets: Offensive Computing dataset (2,124 classes, 42,480 malware) and Anubis dataset (209 classes, 36,784 samples). On both datasets our method obtained an average classification accuracy of 77\%, thus making it applicable to real world malware classification.
CHs are selected based on residual energy and distance of node to BS. CLLEACH uses multi-hop communication to transmit data from node to BS. Node whose energy is greater than threshold is selected as intermediate node in multihop communication. Major strength of CL-LEACH is caching in which source node checks its route to destination if there is path in cache source, node follows that path, thereby reducing overall routing time. But CL-LEACH involves more overhead in maintaining multi-hop routing path.
Abstract: A wiretap channel models a communication channel between a legitimate sender Alice and a legitimate receiver Bob in the presence of an eavesdropper Eve. Confidentiality between Alice and Bob is obtained using wiretap codes, which exploit the difference between the channels to Bob and to Eve. This paper discusses a first implementation of wiretap lattice codes using USRP (Universal Software Radio Peripheral), which focuses on the channel between Alice and Eve. Benefits of coset encoding for Eve's confusion are observed, using different lattice codes in small dimensions, and varying the position of the eavesdropper.
Important tools in this forensic process are databases containing digitized representations of physical crime scene traces. We present ForeMan, an extensible database system for digitized forensics handling separate databases and enabling intra and inter trace type searches. It now contains 762 fiber data sets and 27 fingerprint data sets (anonymized time series). Requirements of the digitized forensic process model are mapped to design aspects and conceptually modeled around benchmarking properties. A fiber categorization scheme is used to structure fiber data according to forensic use case identification. Our research extends the benchmarking properties by fiber fold shape derived from the application field of fibers (part of micro traces) and sequence number derived from the application field of time series analysis for fingerprint aging research. We identify matching data subsets from both digitized trace types and introduce the terms of entity-centered and spatial-centered information. We show how combining two types of digitized crime scene traces (fiber and fingerprint data) can give new insights for research and casework and discuss requirements for other trace types such as firearm and toolmarks.
Abstract: Nested lattices Ae ⊂ Ab have previously been studied for coding in the Gaussian wiretap channel and two design criteria, namely, the secrecy gain and flatness factor, have been proposed to study how the coarse lattice Ae should be chosen so as to maximally conceal the message against the eavesdropper. In this paper, we study the connection between these two criteria and show the secrecy-goodness of even unimodular lattices, which means exponentially vanishing flatness factor as the dimension grows.
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Abstract: In the paradigm of network coding, when wiretapping attacks occur, secure network coding is introduced to prevent information leaking adversaries. In practical network communications, the source often multicasts messages at several different rates within a session. How to deal with information transmission and information security simultaneously under variable rates and fixed security-level is introduced in this paper as a variable-rate and fixed-security-level secure network coding problem. In order to solve this problem effectively, we propose the concept of locality-preserving secure linear network codes of different rates and fixed security-level, which have the same local encoding kernel at each internal node. We further present an approach to construct such a family of secure linear network codes and give an algorithm for efficient implementation. This approach saves the storage space for both source node and internal nodes, and resources and time on networks. Finally, the performance of the proposed algorithm is analyzed, including the field size, computational and storage complexities.
Abstract: The deployment of synchrophasor devices such as Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) in an electric power grid enhances real-time monitoring, analysis and control of grid operations. PMU information is sensitive, and any missing or incorrect PMU data could lead to grid failure and/or damage. Therefore, it is important to use encrypted communication channels to avoid any cyber attack. However, encrypted communication channels are vulnerable to side-channel attacks. In this study, side-channel attacks using packet sizes and/or inter-packet timing delays differentiate the stream of packets from any given PMU within an encrypted tunnel. This is investigated under different experimental settings. Also, virtual private network vulnerabilities due to side-channel analysis are discussed.
Abstract: Today's network control and management traffic are limited by their reliance on existing data networks. Fate sharing in this context is highly undesirable, since control traffic has very different availability and traffic delivery requirements. In this paper, we explore the feasibility of building a dedicated wireless facilities network for data centers. We propose Angora, a low-latency facilities network using low-cost, 60GHz beamforming radios that provides robust paths decoupled from the wired network, and flexibility to adapt to workloads and network dynamics. We describe our solutions to address challenges in link coordination, link interference and network failures. Our testbed measurements and simulation results show that Angora enables large number of low-latency control paths to run concurrently, while providing low latency end-to-end message delivery with high tolerance for radio and rack failures.
Abstract: Mobile networks are vulnerable to signalling attacks and storms caused by traffic that overloads the control plane through excessive signalling, which can be introduced via malware and mobile botnets. With the advent of machine-to-machine (M2M) communications over mobile networks, the potential for signalling storms increases due to the normally periodic nature of M2M traffic and the sheer number of communicating nodes. Several mobile network operators have also experienced signalling storms due to poorly designed applications that result in service outage. The radio resource control (RRC) protocol is particularly susceptible to such attacks, motivating this work within the EU FP7 NEMESYS project which presents simulations that clarify the temporal dynamics of user behavior and signalling, allowing us to suggest how such attacks can be detected and mitigated.
Abstract: Intrusion tolerance is important for services in cloud to continue functioning while under attack. Byzantine fault-tolerant replication is considered a fundamental component of intrusion tolerant systems. However, the monoculture of replicas can render the theoretical properties of Byzantine fault-tolerant system ineffective, even when proactive recovery techniques are employed. This paper exploits the design diversity available from off-the-shelf operating system products and studies how to diversify the configurations of virtual replicas for improving the resilience of the service in the presence of attacks. A game-theoretic model is proposed for studying the optimal diversification strategy for the system defender and an efficient algorithm is designed to approximate the optimal defense strategies in large games.
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Patch adobe audition cs6 tutorial
This is the platform which works on modular architecture approach and provides developers with the toolkit for the implementation of applications based on blockchain along with the customization ease for the applications [19, 20]. It will help to maintain and implement connectivity between the modules of lisk. Limitation of lisk framework is extended block time which creates delay in the confirmation process of blocks. There are various use cases for the lisk like Java applications, decentralized application directories and blockchain.
Other topics include the relationship between matter and energy in relativity, and the possibility of time travel. They were introduced by G -C. Rota with the intention of providing a less "ineffably cacophonous" alternative term. A pre-workshop reception will be held the night of Sunday, Dec 8th, 2020 from 7: 30pm to 10: 00pm. If you need professional help with completing any kind of homework, Online Essay Help is the right place to get it. Prentice Hall Gold Geometry (read the full info here) 2 Practice Form.
LEACH-CC (LEACH-Central Constrained) (2021): LEACH-C selects the node as CH if its residual energy is more than average energy of SNs. However, the limitation of this method is that if average energy of network is low and node whose energy even more than average value can die after the current round. LEACH-CC is centralized clustering protocol which improves the LEACH-C protocol by redefining CH selection approach. According to LEACHCC protocol, BS selects the k. CHs if the difference between SN energy and average of all nodes energy is greater or equal to average energy of node for current round. This protocol ensures that low energy nodes do not participate in CH selection process.
This integration model of two major technologies is having positive impact on the interaction between the citizens, government bodies and organizations. This integration promotes security of data and identity authentication but still it faces some challenge in case of scalability and storage.
Abstract: Providing secure access to confidential information is extremely difficult, notably when regarding weak endpoints and users. With the increasing number of corporate espionage cases and data leaks, a usable approach enhancing the security of data on endpoints is needed. In this paper we present our implementation for providing a new level of security for confidential documents that are viewed on a display. We call this End-to-Display Encryption (E2DE). E2DE encrypts images in the pixel-domain before transmitting them to the user. These images can then be displayed by arbitrary image viewers and are sent to the display. On the way to the display, the data stream is analyzed and the encrypted pixels are decrypted depending on a private key stored on a chip card inserted in the receiver, creating a viewable representation of the confidential data on the display, without decrypting the information on the computer itself. We implemented a prototype on a Digilent Atlys FPGA Board supporting resolutions up to Full HD.
Abstract Recommendation system is a system that attempts to predict the outcome of user according to his/her interest. Recommendation system mostly uses collaborative filtering algorithms. Although this recommendation system is successful in e-commerce sites, these collaborative filtering-based recommendation systems are exposed to shilling attacks. In this, attackers insert false profile information to have an impact on prediction or recommendation of the recommendation system. The consequence of shilling attack on recommendation system, categorization of shilling attacks, detection algorithms and evaluation metrics are provided by this paper.
Abstract: In this paper, a novel motion vector-based video steganographic scheme is proposed, which is capable of withstanding the current best statistical detection method. With this scheme, secret message bits are embedded into motion vector (MV) values by slightly perturbing their motion estimation (ME) processes. In general, two measures are taken for steganographic security (statistical undetectability) enhancement. First, the ME perturbations are optimized ensuring the modified MVs are still local optimal, which essentially makes targeted detectors ineffective. Secondly, to minimize the overall embedding impact under a given relative payload, a double-layered coding structure is used to control the ME perturbations. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed scheme achieves a much higher level of security compared with other existing MV-based approaches. Meanwhile, the reconstructed visual quality and the coding efficiency are slightly affected as well.
Abstract: The application-layer covert channels have been extensively studied in recent years. Information-hiding in ubiquitous application packets can significantly improve the capacity of covert channels. However, the undetectability is still a knotty problem, because the existing covert channels are all frustrated by proper detection schemes. In this paper, we propose LiHB, a behavior-based covert channel in HTTP. When a client is browsing a website and downloading webpage objects, we can reveal some fluctuation behaviors that the distribution relationship between the ports opening and HTTP requests are flexible. Based on combinatorial (visit this web-site) nature of distributing N HTTP requests over M HTTP flows, such fluctuation can be exploited by LiHB channel to encode covert messages, which can obtain high stealthiness. Besides, LiHB achieves a considerable and controllable capacity by setting the number of webpage objects and HTTP flows. Compared with existing techniques, LiHB is the first covert channel implemented based on the unsuspicious behavior of browsers, the most important application-layer software. Because most HTTP proxies are using NAPT techniques, LiHB can also operate well even when a proxy is equipped, which poses a serious threat to individual privacy. Experimental results show that LiHB covert channel achieves a good capacity, reliability and high undetectability.
Abstract: The notion of emergent properties is becoming common place in the physical and social sciences, with applications in physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, economics, and sociology. Unfortunately, little attention has been given to the discussion of emergence in the realm of computer security, from either the attack or defense perspectives, despite there being examples of such attacks and defenses. We review the concept of emergence, discuss it in the context of computer security, argue that understanding such concepts is essential for securing our current and future systems, give examples of current attacks and defenses that make use of such concepts, and discuss the tools currently available to understand this field. We conclude by arguing that more focus needs to be given to the emergent perspective in information security, especially as we move forward to the Internet of Things and a world full of cyber-physical systems, as we believe many future attacks will make use of such ideas and defenses will require such insights.
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Abstract: A variety of schemes based on the technique of Probabilistic Packet Marking (PPM) have been proposed to identify Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack traffic sources by IP traceback. These PPM-based schemes provide a way to reconstruct the attack graph - the network path taken by the attack traffic - hence identifying its sources. Despite the large amount of research in this area, the influence of the underlying topology on the performance of PPM-based schemes remains an open issue. In this paper, we identify three network-dependent factors that affect different PPM-based schemes uniquely giving rise to a variation in and discrepancy between scheme performance from one network to another. Using simulation, we also show the collective effect of these factors on the performance of selected schemes in an extensive set of 60 Internet-like networks. We find that scheme performance is dependent on the network on which it is implemented. We show how each of these factors contributes to a discrepancy in scheme performance in large scale networks. This discrepancy is exhibited independent of similarities or differences in the underlying models of the networks.
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A new revision of the Cybersecurity Information Sharing Act bill will be voted on by the Senate. The bill allows companies with large amounts of information to share it with the appropriate government agencies, who can then share the information as they see fit.
Abstract: We present UBackup-II, an anonymous storage overlay network based on personal multi-cloud storages, with flexible QoS awareness. We reform the original Tor protocol by extending the command set and adding a tail part to the Tor cell, which makes it possible for coordination among proxy servers and still keeps the anonymity. Thus, users can upload and download files secretly under the cover of several proxy servers. Moreover, users can develop a personalized QoS policy leading different hidden access patterns according to their own QoS requirement. We presented the design of UBackup-II in detail, analyzed the security policy and showed how different QoS policies works by conducting a simulating experiment.
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Abstract: In this paper, an observer based cyber-attack detection and estimation methodology for cyber physical systems is presented. The cyber-attack is considered to influence the physical part of the cyber physical system that compromises human safety. The cyber-attacks are considered to affect the sensors and the actuators in the sub-systems as well as the software programs of the control systems in the cyber physical system. The whole system is modeled as a hybrid system to incorporate the discrete and continuous part of the cyber physical system and a sliding mode based observer is designed for the detection of these cyber-attacks. For simulation purposes, this paper considers different cyber-attacks on the battery sub-system of modern automobiles and the simulation results of attack detection are presented in the paper.
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Given the assumption that some sensors can be attacked or faulty, the paper provides a sensor fusion algorithm that obtains a fusion polyhedron which is guaranteed to contain the true value and is minimal in size. A bound on the volume of the fusion polyhedron is also proved based on the number of faulty or attacked sensors. In addition, we incorporate system dynamics in order to utilize past measurements and further reduce the size of the fusion polyhedron. We describe several ways of mapping previous measurements to current time and compare them, under different assumptions, using the volume of the fusion polyhedron. Finally, we illustrate the implementation of the best of these methods and show its effectiveness using a case study with sensor values from a real robot.
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We introduce elastic textures: a set of parametric, tileable, printable, cubic patterns achieving a broad range of isotropic elastic material properties: the softest pattern is ov. Some of these problems have algorithmic applications, while others provide combinatorial bounds for various structures in such arrangements. HORUS ATrag 4 0 bugarski recnik The Rolling Stones – Doom And Gloom 2020 Official Music Video [1080p Full HD] videos caseros. Advances in Real and Complex Analysis with Applications. High-performance and low-power digital systems; asynchronous circuits and systems; system-on- a-chip design; and VLSI CAD.
Hybrid recommendation system is the combination of both content-based and collaborative filtering algorithm. Collaborative filtering (CF)-based recommender system is affected by shilling attacks. Collaborative filtering-based system is more prone to shilling attacks than the content-based recommender system. CF-based recommendation system attainment depends on how well it handles and discovers shilling attacks.
Abstract: In the (ρr, ρw)-adversarial wiretap (AWTP) channel model of , a codeword sent over the communication channel is corrupted by an adversary who observes a fraction ρr of the codeword, and adds noise to a fraction ρw of the codeword. The adversary is adaptive and chooses the subsets of observed and corrupted components, arbitrarily. In this paper we give the first efficient construction of a code family that provides perfect secrecy in this model, and achieves the secrecy capacity.
Abstract: We propose a new scheme of wiretap lattice coding that achieves semantic security and strong secrecy over the Gaussian wiretap channel. The key tool in our security proof is the flatness factor, which characterizes the convergence of the conditional output distributions corresponding to different messages and leads to an upper bound on the information leakage. We not only introduce the notion of secrecy-good lattices, but also propose the flatness factor as a design criterion of such lattices. Both the modulo-lattice Gaussian channel and genuine Gaussian channel are considered. In the latter case, we propose a novel secrecy coding scheme based on the discrete Gaussian distribution over a lattice, which achieves the secrecy capacity to within a half nat under mild conditions. No a priori distribution of the message is assumed, and no dither is used in our proposed schemes.
So to overcome these, authors proposed MaximuM-LEACH centralized clustering protocol. In this protocol, node joins its nearest CH only if CH members are less than particular number, otherwise node joins second nearest CH and so on. BS station selects the node as CH whose energy is greater than average energy of all SNs. As equal number of SNs are assigned to all CHs so MaximuM-LEACH ensures the load balancing and uniform energy consumption of network, therefore improving network lifetime.
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Abstract: The information technology (IT) governance initiatives are complex, time consuming and resource intensive. COBIT, (Control Objectives for Information Related Technology), provides an IT governance framework and supporting toolset to help an organization ensure alignment between use of information technology and its business goals. This paper presents an investigation of COBIT processes' and inputs/outputs relationships with graph analysis. Examining the relationships provides a deep understanding of COBIT structure and may guide for IT governance implementation and audit plans and initiatives. Graph metrics are used to identify the most influential/sensitive processes and relative importance for a given context. Hence, the analysis presented provide guidance to decision makers while developing improvement programs, audits and possibly maturity assessments based on COBIT framework.
Abstract: Billions of internet end-users and device to device connections contribute to the significant data growth in recent years, large scale, unstructured, heterogeneous data and the corresponding complexity present challenges to the conventional real-time online fraud detection system security. With the advent of big data era, it is expected the data analytic techniques to be much faster and more efficient than ever before. Moreover, one of the challenges with many modern algorithms is that they run too slowly in software to have any practical value. This paper proposes a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) -based intrusion detection system (IDS), driven by a new coupled metric learning to discover the inter- and intra-coupling relationships against the growth of data volumes and item relationship to provide a new approach for efficient anomaly detections. This work is experimented on our previously published NetFlow-based IDS dataset, which is further processed into the categorical data for coupled metric learning purpose. The overall performance of the new hardware system has been further compared with the presence of conventional Bayesian classifier and Support Vector Machines classifier. The experimental results show the very promising performance by considering the coupled metric learning scheme in the FPGA implementation. The false alarm rate is successfully reduced down to 5% while the high detection rate (=99/9%) is maintained.
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IoT means the monitoring and data collection is continuing even in the physical world. On a computer, we have at least a semblance of control and can in principle determine what applications are running and what data they are collecting. For example, on a traditional computer, we do have malware defenses - even if imperfect. Such defenses are strikingly absent for IoT, and it is unclear how traditional defenses can be applied to IoT. The issue of control is the main privacy problem in the context of IoT. Users generally don't know about all the sensors in the environment (with the potential exception of sensors in the user's own home). Present-day examples are WiFi MAC trackers and Google Glass, of course, but systems in the future will become even less discernible.
Abstract: With more and more data being stored in the cloud, securing multimedia data is becoming increasingly important. Use of existing encryption methods with cloud services is possible, but makes many web-based applications difficult or impossible to use. In this paper, we propose a new image encryption scheme specially designed to protect JPEG images in cloud photo storage services. Our technique allows efficient reconstruction of an accurate low-resolution thumbnail from the ciphertext image, but aims to prevent the extraction of any more detailed information. This will allow efficient storage and retrieval of image data in the cloud but protect its contents from outside hackers or snooping cloud administrators. Experiments of the proposed approach using an online selfie database show that it can achieve a good balance of privacy, utility, image quality, and file size.
Abstract: In this paper, we propose a practical transmission scheme using polar coding for the half-duplex degraded relay-eavesdropper channel. We prove that the proposed scheme can achieve the maximum perfect secrecy rate under the decode-and-forward (DF) strategy. Our proposed scheme provides an approach for ensuring both reliable and secure transmission over the relay-eavesdropper channel while enjoying practically feasible encoding/decoding complexity.
Abstract: Freedom of operation in cyberspace has become an object of contestation between nation states. Cyber warfare is emerging as a realistic threat. This talk will explore the implications of the development of cyberspace as a domain of warfare and how military theory developed for the other domains of war may be applicable to cyberspace. Far from being a completely different domain, the talk will demonstrate that cyberspace is simply an obvious evolution in conflict theory.
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Abstract: Extended three-particle GHZ state decoy is introduced in controlled quantum secure direct communication to improve eavesdropping detection probability and prevent correlation-elicitation (CE) attack. Each particle of extended three-particle GHZ state decoy is inserted into sending particles to detect eavesdroppers, which reaches 63% eavesdropping detection probability. And decoy particles prevent the receiver from obtaining the correct correlation between particle 1 and particle 2 before the sender coding on them, so that he can not get any secret information without the controller's permission. In the security analysis, the maximum amount of information that a qubit contains is obtained by introducing the entropy theory method, and two decoy strategies are compared quantitatively. If the eavesdroppers intend to eavesdrop on secret information, the per qubit detection rate of using only two particles of extended three-particle GHZ state as decoy is 58%, while the presented protocol using three particles of extended three-particle GHZ state as decoy reaches per qubit 63%.
Abstract: Ever since the discovery of the Stuxnet malware, there have been widespread concerns about disasters via cyber-induced physical damage on critical infrastructures. Cyber physical systems (CPS) integrate computation and physical processes; such infrastructure systems are examples of cyber-physical systems, where computation and physical processes are integrated to optimize resource usage and system performance. The inherent security weaknesses of computerized systems and increased connectivity could allow attackers to alter the systems' behavior and cause irreversible physical damage, or even worse cyber-induced disasters. However, existing security measures were mostly developed for cyber-only systems and they cannot be effectively applied to CPS directly. Thus, new approaches to preventing cyber physical system disasters are essential. We recognize very different characteristics of cyber and physical components in CPS, where cyber components are flexible with large attack surfaces while physical components are inflexible and relatively simple with very small attack surfaces. This research focuses on the components where cyber and physical components interact. Securing cyber-physical interfaces will complete a layer-based defense strategy in the "Defense in Depth Framework". In this paper we propose Trusted Security Modules as a systematic solution to provide a guarantee of preventing cyber-induced physical damage even when operating systems and controllers are compromised. TSMs will be placed at the interface between cyber and physical components by adapting the existing integrity enforcing mechanisms such as Trusted Platform Module, Control-Flow Integrity, and Data-Flow Integrity.
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The 2021 Anti-Phishing Working Group (APWG) Symposium on Electronic Crime Research was held 26-29 May in Barcelona, Spain. The conference focused on a range of topics, many of interest to the Science of Security community. Citations were recovered in July 2021.
Abstract: During recent years, establishing proper metrics for measuring system security has received increasing attention. Security logs contain vast amounts of information which are essential for creating many security metrics. Unfortunately, security logs are known to be very large, making their analysis a difficult task. Furthermore, recent security metrics research has focused on generic concepts, and the issue of collecting security metrics with log analysis methods has not been well studied.
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Abstract: The performance of the achievability scheme for Wyner's wiretap channel model is examined from the perspective of the probability of correct decoding, Pc, at the wiretap channel decoder. In particular, for finite-alphabet memoryless channels, the exact random coding exponent of Pc is derived as a function of the total coding rate R1 and the rate of each subcode R2. Two different representations are given for this function and its basic properties are provided. We also characterize the region of pairs of rates (R1, R2) of full security in the sense of the random coding exponent of Pc, in other words, the region where the exponent of this achievability scheme is the same as that of blind guessing at the eavesdropper side. Finally, an analogous derivation of the correct-decoding exponent is outlined for the case of the Gaussian channel.
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Abstract: The aim of the study is to develop a European gas transmission system probabilistic model to analyse in a single computer model, the reliability and capacity constraints of a gas transmission network. We describe our approach to modelling the reliability and capacity constraints of networks elements, for example gas storages and compressor stations by a multi-state system. The paper presents our experience with the computer implementation of a gas transmission network probabilistic prototype model based on generalization of the maximum flow problem for a stochastic-flow network in which elements can randomly fail with known failure probabilities. The paper includes a test-case benchmark study, which is based on a real gas transmission network. Monte-Carlo simulations are used for estimating the probability that less than the demanded volume of the commodity (for example, gas) is available in the selected network nodes. Simulated results are presented and analysed in depth by statistical methods.
Sheet3 Sheet2 Sheet1 Book_Title Book_Author Book Product Type Book Copyright Year Book Electronic ISBN13 Languge_Collection ENG Package Name OpenURL Springer MARC 21. Optimization of Wind Farm Layout and Wind Turbine Geometry (https://ctbelize.com/activation-key/?patch=8065) Using a Multi-Level Extended Pattern Search Algorithm that Accounts for Variation in Wind Shear Profile Shape ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences & Computers and Information in Engineering Conference, ASME. Java B-Tree applet animation xSortLab Lab Quicksort - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Grade 1 Ana Exemplars 2020; Yamaha 350 Moto 4 Motor Specs; Cat D3c Parts Diagram; Saab Wiring Diagram 9 5; Branch Circuit Wiring Diagram; Quimica Serie Conexos; Main And Hel. Solution Pathria Statistical Problems.
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Abstract: In this paper, we investigate the achievable semantic secrecy rate of existing lattice coding schemes, proposed in , for both the mod-Λ Gaussian wiretap and the Gaussian wiretap channels. For both channels, we propose new upper bounds on the amount of leaked information which provide milder sufficient conditions to achieve semantic secrecy. These upper bounds show that the lattice coding schemes in can achieve the secrecy capacity to within ½ln e/2 nat for the mod-Λ Gaussian and to within ½(1 - ln (1 + SNRe / SNRe+1)) nat for the Gaussian wiretap channels where SNRe is the signal-to-noise ratio of Eve.
It also reduces the cost of transaction by buying the items from online shopping sites. Recommender system is of three types, content based, collaborative filtering and hybrid filtering. In content-based recommender system, recommendation is based on the content rather on the other user opinion. Collaborative filtering is of two types— user based and item based.
Abstract: Symmetrical multilevel diversity coding (SMDC) is a classical model for coding over distributed storage. In this setting, a simple separate encoding strategy known as superposition coding was shown to be optimal in terms of achieving the minimum sum rate and the entire admissible rate region of the problem. The proofs utilized carefully constructed induction arguments, for which the classical subset entropy inequality played a key role. This paper consists of two parts. In the first part, the existing optimality proofs for classical SMDC are revisited, with a focus on their connections to subset entropy inequalities. Initially, a new sliding-window subset entropy inequality is introduced and then used to establish the optimality of superposition coding for achieving the minimum sum rate under a weaker source-reconstruction requirement. Finally, a subset entropy inequality recently proved by Madiman and Tetali is used to develop a new structural understanding of the work of Yeung and Zhang on the optimality of superposition coding for achieving the entire admissible rate region. Building on the connections between classical SMDC and the subset entropy inequalities developed in the first part, in the second part the optimality of superposition coding is extended to the cases where there is either an additional all-access encoder or an additional secrecy constraint.
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In this paper, we are able to graphically analyze which FOV angles at receiver end are suitable for different environmental conditions. This analysis helped us to contribute a hybrid model which can work in clear as well as foggy weather conditions. The rest of this paper is organized as follows.
Abstract: In this paper we describe an ontology developed for a cyber security knowledge graph database. This is intended to provide an organized schema that incorporates information from a large variety of structured and unstructured data sources, and includes all relevant concepts within the domain. We compare the resulting ontology with previous efforts, discuss its strengths and limitations, and describe areas for future work.
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Abstract: Connected vehicles communicate either with each other or with the fixed infrastructure using Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC). The communication is used by DSRC safety applications, such as forward collision warning, which are intended to reduce accidents. Since these safety applications operate in a critical infrastructure, reliability of the applications is essential. This research considers jamming as the source of a malicious act that could significantly affect reliability. Previous research has discussed jamming detection and prevention in the context of wireless networks in general, but little focus has been on Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANET), which have unique characteristics. Other research discussed jamming detection in VANET, however it is not aligned with current DSRC standards. We propose a new jamming-aware algorithm for DSRC safety application design for VANET that increases reliability using jamming detection and consequent fail-safe behavior, without any alteration of existing protocols and standards. The impact of deceptive jamming on data rates and the impact of the jammer's data rate were studied using actual field measurements. Finally, we show the operation of the jamming-aware algorithm using field data.
Abstract: In recent years, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have become valuable assets to both the commercial and military communities with applications ranging from industrial control on a factory floor to reconnaissance of a hostile border. A typical WSN topology that applies to most applications allows sensors to act as data sources that forward their measurements to a central sink or base station (BS). The unique role of the BS makes it a natural target for an adversary that desires to achieve the most impactful attack possible against a WSN. An adversary may employ traffic analysis techniques such as evidence theory to identify the BS based on network traffic flow even when the WSN implements conventional security mechanisms. This motivates a need for WSN operators to achieve improved BS anonymity to protect the identity, role, and location of the BS. Many traffic analysis countermeasures have been proposed in literature, but are typically evaluated based on data traffic only, without considering the effects of network synchronization on anonymity performance. In this paper we use evidence theory analysis to examine the effects of WSN synchronization on BS anonymity by studying two commonly used protocols, Reference Broadcast Synchronization (RBS) and Timing-synch Protocol for Sensor Networks (TPSN).
A measured approach that informs cybersecurity practice is pursued toward maximizing ROI. To this end for example, ranking threats based on their potential impact focuses security mitigation and control investments on the highest value assets, which represent the greatest potential losses. The traditional approach uses risk exposure (calculated by multiplying risk probability by impact). To address this issue in terms of security economics, we introduce the notion of Cybernomics. Cybernomics considers the cost/benefits to the attacker/defender to estimate risk exposure. As the first step, we discuss the likelihood that a threat will emerge and whether it can be thwarted and if not what will be the cost (losses both tangible and intangible). This impact assessment can provide key information for ranking cybersecurity threats and managing risk.
Abstract: The buses protocol is designed to provide provably anonymous communication on a connected graph. Figuratively speaking, a bus is a single unit of transport containing multiple seats. Each seat carries a ciphertext from a sender to a receiver. The buses approach aims to conceal traffic patterns by having buses constantly travel along fixed routes and is a step forward in concealing traffic compared to other anonymous communication protocols. Therefore, in this day in which Internet privacy is crucial it deserves further investigation. Here, we cryptanalyze the reduced-seat Buses protocol and we also present distinguishing attacks against the related Taxis protocol as well as P5. These attacks highlight the need to employ cryptosystems with key-privacy in such protocols. We then show that anonymity is not formally proven in the buses protocols. These findings motivate the need for a new provably secure connectionless anonymous messaging protocol. We present what we call the drunk motorcyclist (DM) protocol for anonymous messaging that overcomes these issues. We define the DM protocol, show a construction for it, and then prove that anonymity and confidentiality hold under Decision Diffie-Hellman (DDH) against global active adversaries.
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We show that its efficacy extends beyond HTTPS-enabled sites. Our solution enables immediate local identification of phishing sites. As such, this serves as an important complement to the existing server-based anti-phishing mechanisms which predominately use blacklists. Blacklisting suffers from several inherent drawbacks in terms of correctness, timeliness, and completeness. Due to the potentially significant lag prior to site blacklisting, there is a window of opportunity for attackers. Other local client-side phishing detection approaches also exist, but primarily rely on page content or URLs, which are arguably easier to manipulate by attackers. We illustrate that our certificate-based approach greatly increases the difficulty of masquerading undetected for phishers, with single millisecond delays for users. We further show that this approach works not only against HTTPS-enabled phishing attacks, but also detects HTTP phishing attacks with port 443 enabled.
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Abstract: Differential privacy is becoming a gold standard notion of privacy; it offers a guaranteed bound on loss of privacy due to release of query results, even under worst-case assumptions. The theory of differential privacy is an active research area, and there are now differentially private algorithms for a wide range of problems. However, the question of when differential privacy works in practice has received relatively little attention. In particular, there is still no rigorous method for choosing the key parameter ε, which controls the crucial tradeoff between the strength of the privacy guarantee and the accuracy of the published results.
Abstract: Regenerating codes enable trading off repair bandwidth for storage in distributed storage systems (DSS). Due to their distributed nature, these systems are intrinsically susceptible to attacks, and they may also be subject to multiple simultaneous node failures. Cooperative regenerating codes allow bandwidth efficient repair of multiple simultaneous node failures. This paper analyzes storage systems that employ cooperative regenerating codes that are robust to (passive) eavesdroppers. The analysis is divided into two parts, studying both minimum bandwidth and minimum storage cooperative regenerating scenarios. First, the secrecy capacity for minimum bandwidth cooperative regenerating codes is characterized. Second, for minimum storage cooperative regenerating codes, a secure file size upper bound and achievability results are provided. These results establish the secrecy capacity for the minimum storage scenario for certain special cases. In all scenarios, the achievability results correspond to exact repair, and secure file size upper bounds are obtained using min-cut analyses over a suitable secrecy graph representation of DSS. The main achievability argument is based on an appropriate precoding of the data to eliminate the information leakage to the eavesdropper.
Abstract: In the last decade, the number of location-aware mobile devices has mushroomed. Just as location-based services grow fast, they lay out many questions and challenges when it comes to privacy. For example, who owns the location data and for what purpose is the data used? To answer these questions, we need new tools for location privacy. In this paper, we focus on the problem of secure location sharing, where a group of n clients want to collaborate with each other to anonymously share their location data with a location database server and execute queries based on them. To become more realistic, we assume up to a certain fraction of the clients are controlled arbitrarily by an active and computationally unbounded adversary. A relaxed version of this problem has already been studied in the literature assuming either a trusted third party or a weaker adversarial model. We alternatively propose a scalable fully-decentralized protocol for secure location sharing that tolerates up to n/6 statically-chosen malicious clients and does not require any trusted third party. We show that, unlike most other location-based services, our protocol is secure against traffic-analysis attacks. We also show that our protocol requires each client to send a polylogarithmic number of bits and compute a polylogarithmic number of operations (with respect to n) to query a point of interest based on its location.
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To date, OOB-CCs have been declared "covert" if the signals used to establish these channels could not be perceived by a human adversary. This work examines OOB-CCs from the perspective of a passive adversary and argues that a different methodology is required in order to effectively assess OOB-CCs. Traditional communication systems are measured by their capacity and bit error rate; while important parameters, they do not capture the key measures of OOB-CCs: namely, the probability of an adversary detecting the channel and the amount of data that two covertly communicating parties can exchange without being detected. As a result, the adoption of the measure steganographic capacity is proposed and used to measure the amount of data (in bits) that can be transferred through an OOB-CC before a passive adversary's probability of detecting the channel reaches a given threshold. The theoretical steganographic capacity for discrete memoryless channels as well as additive white Gaussian noise channels is calculated in this paper and a case study is performed to measure the steganographic capacity of OOB covert-acoustic channels, when a passive adversary uses an energy detector to detect the covert communication.
Abstract: A new image encryption scheme based on hyper chaotic system and Fuzzy Cellular Automata is proposed in this paper. Hyper chaotic system has more complex dynamical characteristics than chaos systems. Hence it becomes a better choice for secure image encryption schemes. Four hyper chaotic systems are used to improve the security and speed of the algorithm in this approach. First, the image is divided into four sub images. Each of these sub images has its own hyper chaotic system. In shuffling phase, Pixels in the two adjacent sub images are selected for changing their positions based upon the generated numbers of their hyper chaotic systems. Five 1D non-uniform Fuzzy Cellular Automata used in encryption phase. Used rule to encrypt a cell is selected based upon cell's right neighbor. By utilization of two different encryption methods for odd and even cells, problem of being limited to recursive rules in rule selecting process in these FCAs is solved.
The primary goal of research in combinatorial computational geometry is to develop efficient algorithms and data structures for solving problems stated in terms of basic geometrical objects: points, line segments, polygons, polyhedra, etc. VoyForums Announcement: Programming and providing support for this service has been a labor of love since 1997. In Proceedings of the Symposium on Geometry Processing. Iterative Methods for Fixed Point Problems in Hilbert Spaces. Introduction to Combinatorial Geometry Sathish Govindarajan Department of Computer Science and Automation Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore Research promotion workshop on Graphs and Geometry Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee Sathish Govindarajan (Indian Institute of Science)Introduction to Combinatorial Geometry.
Last accessed on 10 Dec 2021 3. “intel-mobileodt-cervical-cancer-screening,” Kaggle, [Online]. Available: com/c/intel-mobileodt-cervical-cancer-screening. Last accessed 10 Dec 2021 4. LeCun YB, Hinton G (2021) Deep learning. Nature 521:436–444 5. Cire¸san DC, Giusti A, Gambardella LM, Schmidhuber J (2021) Mitosis detection in breast cancer histology images with deep neural networks. In: Medical image computing and computer-assisted intervention—MICCAI, Berlin, Heidelberg 6. Holger RR, Lu L, Seff A, Cherry KM, Hoffman J, Wang S, Liu J, Turkbey E, Summers RM (2021) A new 2/5D representation for lymph node detection using random sets of deep convolutional neural network observations.